The Marine Corps League is headed by an elected National Commandant, with 14 elected National Staff Officers who serve as trustees. The National Board of Trustees coordinates the efforts of 49 department or state entities and the activities of over 1,000 community-based Detachments located throughout the United States and overseas. The day-to-day operations of the League are under the control of the National Executive Director.

The Marine Corps League Bylaws, as well as other written guidelines, govern the conduct of the Marine Corps League.  Additionally each Department (state) and Detachment has their own bylaws to govern their conduct, programs and policies.

The prime authority of the League is derived from its Congressional Charter and from its annual National Convention held each August in different U.S. cities throughout the nation. The Marine Corps League is a not-for-profit organization within the provisions of the Internal Revenue Service Code 501(c) (4).